So far the path has been pretty standard for unlocking as far as we know. I thought I would make a post letting new players know what's been done. Holocrons seem to be the only way so far to check status of unlocking as shrines only have an examine option and no meditate option.
1/5: Seems to be POI badges and it varies from toon to toon. The Holocron says something about "you stare at this strange object trying to figure it out. You must search the galaxy for clues." Once you have the required POI badges you move to the next step.
2/5: "A mysterious voice says, "In order to continue your path to enlightenment you must learn master X."
At this step your Holocron will be consumed and given the next profession to grind. So far no one has gotten past this point. The farthest player's have gotten at this time is 9 professions. Gospel has tried using a second Holocron to see if it would give a different profession without finishing the first but it was a repeat.
Will update when someone passes the hologrind and see what is coming up next.
Has also been noted by the devs that rebel/imp faction has no part of the unlock system.
3/5: Once you complete your last Holocron profession it will tell you that you need to continue your search on your own. This part is anyone's guess and can have many unknown factors to your unlock.
4/5: You get a pop up to go meditate somewhere quiet alone. At this point you a basically unlocked so don't die.